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Guideline from the CPC Central Committee and the State Council to

Date:2021-12-15 00:00:00

国家卫生健康委老龄健康司司长王海东解读《中共中央国务院关于加强新时代老龄工作的意见》

Guideline from the CPC Central Committee and the State Council to

Step up Elderly Service in the New Era

-- Interpretation from Wang Haidong, Director of the National Health Commission's Aging Health Department

24日,《中共中央 国务院关于加强新时代老龄工作的意见》发布。意见将满足老年人需求和解决人口老龄化问题相结合,从健全养老服务体系、完善老年人健康支撑体系、促进老年人社会参与、着力构建老年友好型社会、积极培育银发经济等方面提出要求及一揽子举措。

On November 24th, Guideline from the CPC Central Committee and the State Council to Step up Elderly Service in the New Era was rolled out. Aimed at satisfying seniors’ needs and addressing problems of population aging at the same time, the Guideline puts forward requirements and a package of measures to improve elderly care and health support systems, promote social engagement of the elderly, build an age-friendly society, and develop the silver economy.

意见出台的背景和意义是什么?提出的举措有哪些亮点和创新,将在哪些方面提高老年人获得感?国家卫生健康委老龄健康司司长王海东回答了记者提问。

Under what circumstance was the Guideline released? How significant is it? What are some of the highlights and innovations in the proposed measures? In what ways is it going to enhance the elderly’s sense of fulfillment? Wang Haidong, Director of the National Health Commission's Aging Health Department, was invited for an interview with the Xinhua News Agency to interpret this newly-issued document. 

问:第七次全国人口普查结果显示,我国60岁及以上人口已达2.64亿人,占总人口的比重比2010年上升了5.44个百分点。随着我国人口老龄化程度加深,老龄工作面临不少问题和挑战。此时出台意见具有怎样的意义?

Q: The 7th national census reveals that China’s 60 plus population has reached 264 million, 5.44 percentage points higher in the total population than that in 2010. As the Chinese population keeps advancing in years, the country’s elderly service is confronted with numerous problems and challenges. How significant is it for such a guideline to be released at this moment?

答:人口老龄化是社会发展的重要趋势,是人类文明进步的重要体现,也是我国今后较长一个时期的基本国情。我国自1999年进入老龄社会,老年人口规模日益庞大、老龄化程度日益加深。人口老龄化对经济运行全领域、社会建设各环节、社会文化多方面乃至国家综合实力和国际竞争力都具有深远影响。有效应对我国人口老龄化,事关国家发展全局,事关亿万百姓福祉,事关社会和谐稳定,对于全面建设社会主义现代化国家具有重要意义。

A: Population aging is inevitable in the course of social development, a manifest of human progress, and also one of China’s long-standing basic national conditions down the track. Since 1999 when China became an aging society, its aged population has been growing in terms of both magnitude and average age. This demographic change has far-reaching implications for all sectors of the economy and society, even for the country’s national strength and international competitiveness. How well this great shift is coped with matters a great deal to the overall development of the country, the well-being of hundreds of millions of its people, social harmony and stability, and the building of a modern socialist country in an all-round way.

党的十八大以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央高度重视老龄工作,精心谋划、统筹推进老龄事业发展。针对新时代我国人口老龄化的新形势新特点,党中央、国务院立足中华民族伟大复兴战略全局,坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,为全面贯彻落实积极应对人口老龄化国家战略,让老年人共享改革发展成果、安享幸福晚年,印发了上述意见,着力解决老年人在养老、健康、精神文化生活、社会参与等方面的现实需求问题,深入挖掘老龄社会潜能,激发老龄社会活力,切实增强广大老年人的获得感、幸福感、安全感。

Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the CPC Central Committee, with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, has attached great importance to elderly service, drawing up elaborate plans to boost the development China’s elderly service industry in a comprehensive manner. In response to new facts and characteristics of China's population aging in the new era, the CPC Central Committee and the State Council issued the Guideline as part of the strategy for China’s great rejuvenation, its people-centered development philosophy, and the national strategy to address its population aging, so as to include the elderly as development beneficiaries and secure them a happy late life. The Guideline urges efforts to meet the real needs of the elderly in terms of nursing service, medical care, cultural life, and social engagement, unlock the huge potential of an aged society, renew its vitality, and beef up the sense of fulfillment, happiness and security for the elderly.

问:意见主要有哪些方面的内容?与2019年中共中央、国务院印发的《国家积极应对人口老龄化中长期规划》相比,此次的意见又有哪些突出的特点?

Q: Would you please give us a sense of its main ideas? What is unique about this guideline in comparison to the Medium-and Long-term Plan in an Active Response to Population Aging issued by the CPC Central Committee and the State Council back in 2019?

答:意见共分八个部分、24条,主要部署了健全养老服务体系、完善老年人健康支撑体系、促进老年人社会参与、着力构建老年友好型社会、积极培育银发经济等方面的老龄工作任务,充分体现了把积极老龄观、健康老龄化理念融入经济社会发展全过程的指导思想。

A: The Guideline, which is divided into eight parts and 24 articles, deploys the key tasks in improving the elderly care and health support systems, promoting social engagement of the elderly, building an age-friendly society, and developing the silver economy. It can be well applied to the whole process during which the ideology of aging positively and healthily gradually fits into the country’s overall socio-economic development.

意见既在指导思想和工作原则上与2019年印发的《国家积极应对人口老龄化中长期规划》保持一致,又聚焦新时代、聚焦老龄工作、聚焦老年人的急难愁盼问题,侧重既定目标任务的落实,通过创新和完善政策举措,建立制度框架,推动老龄工作落地见效,是指导新时代老龄工作的纲领性文件。

Consistent with the 2019 Plan in both ideology and working principles, the Guideline expands its focus on elderly service in the new era, the urgent concerns of the aged, and the fulfillment of established goals. It drives innovation and optimization in policy measures and the establishment of an institutional framework to ensure improvement in elderly service. It is no doubt a seminal document for elderly service in the new era.

意见具有五个突出特点:一是将加强党的领导作为首要原则贯穿文件始终。二是充分发挥政府主导作用。三是充分发挥市场机制作用,提供多元产品和服务。四是建立基本养老服务清单制度。五是强化地方和部门在老龄工作中的职责,压实责任,推动落实。

There are five highlights worth mentioning:

  1. Reinforcing the CPC’s leadership as a fundamental rule throughout the entire document;

  2. Making full use of the government’s dominant role in social services;

  3. Giving full play to the role of the market in providing diversified products and services;

  4. Establishing a list of essential elderly services.

  5. Specifying the responsibilities of local authorities in elderly service to ensure full implementation

    问:在健全养老服务体系方面,意见有哪些新举措?

    Q: What are some of the new measures in the optimization of the existing old-age nursing service system?

    答:调查显示,我国九成以上的老人倾向于居家养老。在创新居家社区养老服务模式方面,意见提出,以居家养老为基础,通过新建、改造、租赁等方式,提升社区养老服务能力,着力发展街道(乡镇)、城乡社区两级养老服务网络。

    A: A survey shows that nine in ten seniors in China would like to age at home. In terms of innovative home-based and community-based elderly service model, the Guideline suggests that with home-based care remaining the first option, community-based care should also be made readily available via newly-built, remodeled or rent community elderly care centers. A two-tiered elderly service network ought to be set in place at both sub-district (township) and community (urban & rural) levels.

    在促进养老机构规范发展方面,意见提出,各地要通过直接建设、委托运营、购买服务、鼓励社会投资等多种方式发展机构养老。公办养老机构优先接收经济困难的失能(含失智,下同)、孤寡、残疾、高龄老年人以及计划生育特殊家庭老年人、为社会作出重要贡献的老年人,并提供符合质量和安全标准的养老服务。

    As for residential aged care institutions, the Guideline stresses that governments at all levels are supposed to develop institutional elderly care through diverse approaches, such as building new nursing homes, entrusting external operators, purchasing services, and introducing social investment. Public nursing homes should prioritize the accommodation of certain groups, including hard-pressed seniors physically or mentally incapacitated, widowed, disabled, those in more advanced senior years, and those who lost their only child or has made remarkable contribution to the society. These seniors deserve nursing services up to quality and safety standards.

    此外,意见提出,各地要根据财政承受能力,制定基本养老服务清单,对健康、失能、经济困难等不同老年人群体,分类提供养老保障、生活照料、康复照护、社会救助等适宜服务;大力发展企业(职业)年金,促进和规范发展第三支柱养老保险。

    In addition, the guideline also advocates that a list of essential elderly services be formulated under which seniors are divided into different categories in terms of their general health, incapacitation, and financial struggles, and receive old-age security benefits, nursing services, rehabilitation services, and social aid accordingly, as far as local finance can afford. Plus, enterprise (occupational) annuities and commercial old-age insurance subject to regulated development should be included as supplementary measures to support senior’s livelihood.

    问:目前,我国失能或部分失能老年人约有4000万人,75%以上的老年人至少患有一种慢性病,老年人长寿不健康问题凸显。完善老年人健康支撑体系方面,意见提出哪些举措?

    Q: At present, China is home to a whopping 40 million totally and partly incapacitated elderly people, with 75% of them suffering from at least one chronic disease. In other words, seniors in China are living a long, yet unhealthy life. What are some of the measures in the Guideline to revamp the existing elderly care system?

    答:意见聚焦解决老年人健康养老最紧迫的问题,推进各项优质服务资源向老年人的身边、家边和周边聚集。

    A: The Guideline zooms in on the most urgent problems getting in the way of healthy aging and drives high-quality services towards this age group on a dramatic rise in magnitude.

    围绕提高老年人健康服务和管理水平,意见提出,加强老年人群重点慢性病的早期筛查、干预及分类指导,开展老年口腔健康、老年营养改善、老年痴呆防治和心理关爱行动;扩大医联体提供家庭病床、上门巡诊等居家医疗服务的范围。

    To upgrade elderly care service and management level, the Guideline suggests that it is essential to step up early screening, intervention and categorized guidance of major chronic diseases among the elderly, improve their dental health, nutrition, cognitive functions and mental health, and provide them better access to home-based medical care services.

    在解决失能老年人长期照护服务问题方面,意见提出,完善从专业机构到社区、家庭的长期照护服务模式;发展互联网+照护服务,积极发展家庭养老床位和护理型养老床位;完善现有试点,积极探索建立适合我国国情的长期护理保险制度。

    To provide incapacitated elderly with their much-needed long-term nursing services, the Guideline urges the promotion of a long-term nursing service model integrating residential aged care institutions, communities and households, the development of the “Internet plus nursing service”, and the improvement of ongoing pilot programs on the establishment of long-term nursing insurance system well suited to China’s national conditions.

    此外,意见要求,深入推进医养结合,卫生健康部门与民政部门要建立医养结合工作沟通协调机制。

    In addition, the Guideline also requests greater integration of medical care and elderly care services through coordination mechanisms between medical care and civil affairs authorities.

    问:安享老有所乐、老有所为的晚年是每一位老年人期望的生活状态。在促进老年人社会参与方面,意见提出哪些措施?

    Q: It is a longing of each senior individual to enjoy a pleasant and productive late life. How does the Guideline encourage their social engagement?

    答:意见提出,将老年教育纳入终身教育体系,采取促进有条件的学校开展老年教育、支持社会力量举办老年大学(学校)等办法,推动扩大老年教育资源供给。各地要通过盘活空置房、公园、商场等资源,支持街道社区积极为老年人提供文化体育活动场所。

    A: According to the Guideline, education for the aged should be incorporated as part of the lifelong education system. Public and private schools are both encouraged to offer them education opportunities. Education resources targeting this age group should be much better supplied. Governments at sub-district and community levels are supposed to offer them venues for organized events by making better use of public places such as parks, shopping malls and vacant buildings.

    意见还要求,把老有所为同老有所养结合起来,完善就业、志愿服务、社区治理等政策措施,充分发挥低龄老年人作用。在学校、医院等单位和社区家政服务、公共场所服务管理等行业,探索适合老年人灵活就业的模式。

    It is also recommended in the Guideline that younger-age seniors be encouraged to rejoin the workforce, for example, by doing volunteer work and taking a part in community management as a way to generate extra income to add to their pensions. More job opportunities must be open to the elderly in schools, hospitals, domestic services and management services in public places.

    此外,意见提出,着力构建老年友好型社会,从加强老年人权益保障、打造老年宜居环境、强化社会敬老等方面提出系列举措。

    To build an age-friendly society, approaches ought to be taken to ensure the legitimate rights and interests of the elderly, build them a livable environment, and inspire greater respect for them from the society at large.

    问:在激活老年用品和服务市场、积极培育银发经济方面,意见有哪些措施?

    A: What about measures to boost the senior goods and services market in the development of the silver economy?

    答:目前,我国老龄事业和老龄产业发展不平衡、不充分,老龄产业发展较为滞后。意见一方面提出加强规划引导,统筹推进老龄产业发展;另一方面提出发展适老产业,相关部门要制定老年用品和服务目录、质量标准,推进养老服务认证工作。同时,意见要求,市场监管等部门要加强监管,严厉打击侵犯知识产权和制售假冒伪劣商品等违法行为,维护老年人消费权益,营造安全、便利、诚信的消费环境。

    Q: At present, China is lagging fairly behind in the supply of equitable and adequate elderly care services. The Guideline upholds both meticulous planning and guidance for the elderly care industry and the development of age-friendly industries. For example, a specific list and quality control standards should be set in place for senior goods and services. And further improvement needs to be seen in elderly care certification. Meanwhile, a stronger market regulation is also imperative against IPR infringements and the manufacture and sales of counterfeit and substandard products, so that seniors could enjoy their consumption rights and interests in a safe, convenient and honest market environment.

    (新华社)